Simple Algorithm Design Using Flowcharts and Pseudo Code

Last week, our lecturer of Introduction to Computing gave us an assignment to design algorithms of some simple problems using flowcharts and pseudo code. Many of us found it difficult to do this. Few complained that the lectures given by Mr. Mata-ur-Rehman on this topic were not sufficient enough to make us able to solve these problems. Due to all these things I decided to share some useful resources with my friends which, I think, can help to understand this topic very well. These are two lectures by a professor of Virtual University of Pakistan. These are conducted in a very interesting and efficient way. I am sure, you will not bore watching these lectures and that they will make a great addition to your knowledge of the topic. Also included are the download links of accompanying powerpoint presentations.



Download Presentation of Algorithms Lecture No. 1


Download Presentation of Algorithms Lecture No. 2

How to Manually Upgrade a WordPress Plugin

Since last few versions, WordPress comes with an automatic method of upgrading any installed plugins but this method fails on most free web hosting servers. In such a situation, the need of upgrading a plugin manually via ftp arises. Here is a short tutorial on how to do this.

  1. First of all, go to the plugin’s home page on wordpress .org and do two things there.
  2. Download the latest version of the plugin by clicking on the download link in the upper right corner.
  3. Click on the “Installation” tab.
  4. Read all the content present in this tab carefully to see if the developer of the plugin has given some special instructions about upgrading that particular plugin.
  5. If yes, then just follow those instructions and ignore the next steps of this tutorial.
  6. If the developer has not given any specific instructions then follow the general procedure given below.
  7. Deactivate the plugin by going into the admin panel of your wordpress blog: Dashboard>Plugins
  8. Log on to the ftp server of your website and delete the files of thet plugin present in the /wp-content/plugins/ directory.
  9. Unzip the plugin file you have just downloaded from
  10. Now upload these new files to the /wp-content/plugins/ directory.
  11. Go to Dashboard>Plugins in the admin panel of your wordpress blog and activate the plugin.

and you are done!!!!


To stay on safe side, you may want to backup the database of your blog before going through this procedure.

Formatting Your USB with NTFS in Windows XP

As you all know that whenever we try to format our USB flash drive while we are using windows XP, then in the format USB dialog box (see the image below), we only have the option to format it using the FAT32 file system.

What if you want to format it using the NTFS file system instead? Actually I have just read an article which states that the speed of a USB increases if it is formatted with NTFS file system. So here is the method of getting this functionality in Windows XP too (Please note that in both Windows Vista and Windows 7, you can format a USB with NTFS by default).

  1. Insert your flash drive in your computer.
  2. Right click on “My Computer” icon on your desktop or in the start menu.
  3. Click on “Properties”.
  4. Select the “Hardware” tab.
  5. Click on “Device Manager”.
  6. Click on + sign next to “Disk drives”.
  7. Right click on the name of your flash drive in the appeared list and click on “Properties” in this menu.
  8. Choose the “Policies” tab.
  9. Select the “Optimize for performance” option and click OK.
  10. Now open the “My Computer” folder, right click on your flash drive and select “Format” to format it.
  11. Select “NTFS” in the “File system” drop down list, and click “Start”.



As stated in the Dialog box where we selected the “Optimize for performance” option, after selecting this option and formatting the flash drive with NTFS, it becomes more necessary to stop the drive using “Safely Remove Hardware” icon in the windows notification area before removing it from the computer. Otherwise, problems may arise, or your flash drive may damage.

How to select a vertical block of text in Microsoft Word 2007

I was reading a book on Microsoft office Word 2007 when I came across this tip. It was a new piece of information for me so I thought I should share it with you all my friends. The tip is that if you click and drag with your left mouse button while holding down the Alt key on your keyboard, then you can select a vertical block of text in your document. For more explanation, please see the following screenshot.

Vertical Text Selection in MS Word 2007
Vertical Text Selection in MS Word 2007

Isn’t it amazing? However, a little bit of care is required in making such a selection because if you simply Alt+Click a word in MS Word then it launches the Research task pane instead of starting a selection. So, follow the following steps in a sequence to accomplish this task without any hassle:

  1. Press and hold down the Alt key on your keyboard.
  2. Left click in your document where you want the upper left corner of your selection and hold down the mouse button.
  3. Drag your mouse to the point where you want the lower right corner of your selection.
  4. Release the mouse button and then release the Alt key.

You can, however, start the selection from any of the four possible corners and end it on the opposite one.

Generate Random Text in Microsoft Office Word 2003

Sometimes when you want to experiment with some features of Microsoft Office Word while reading a book or tutorial, you need a sufficient amount of text on which you can apply these techniques and observe there effects. Fortunately word 2003 has a built in feature to provide you a good amount of text in a few seconds. It is called the Random Text Generator. To try it, just:

  1. Open a new word document
  2. Type in =rand()
  3. Press Enter

It will generate three paragraphs of text having a sentence repeated five times in each of them. That sentence is:

“The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.”

Now let’s get some more control over the number of paragraphs and sentences generated.
Try typing =rand(2,7) and pressing Enter.
It generates 2 paragraphs of text having the same sentence repeated 7 times in each of them.

So, In general, we can say that when we type =rand(x,y) in Microsoft Office Word 2003 and press Enter, we get x paragraphs of random text and each of them contains y number of sentences i. e. =rand(paragraphs, sentences).

In case you find any thing not working properly for you according to these instructions then, please don’t hesitate to comment and ask me about it.